When a Mother smokes, she endangers her child, when she stands by and becomes a passage smoker, she endangers her child, when she drinks alcohol, she endangers her child, when she takes illegal drugs and she endangers her child. Every decision made by a mother is her responsibility for the affect that is has on her child. Her decision to smoke, drink, take illegal drugs, exercise too much and to eat the right foods can be fixed. The mother can learn to eat healthier, she can learn to do only a certain amount of exercise, although smoking, drinking and taking illegal drugs is hard, it is possible to give, up. Even though this may sound hard, it is certainly possible to overcome to help the safety of the unborn child, but there are clinics that you can go to and they help with the drug, alcohol and smoking addiction as well as keep your unborn baby healthy.

With Genetic and Chromosomal Defects, there are tests that can go underway while the baby is still in the fetus to seek out any problems or complications. Some people may have a bigger risk of having a child with a genetic defect then other people such as older women are prone to have a child with Down's Syndrome.

There have been two tests commonly known but they are known to have some issues (side effects) known. They are down below.

Amniocentesis: is a test that involves taking samples of the liquid around the fetus when it is 16 weeks into the pregnancy. These cells taken are forced to grow and are then tested for a number of chromosome abnormalities.

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Chorionic Villus Testing: is a test that can be carried out within the earlier stages of pregnancy (12 weeks), it is done by taking a sample of the tissue of the placenta and looking at it carefully.

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Both of these two tests also open the opportunity of having a miscarriage no matter if the fetus is healthy or un-healthy. If a positive result is give (such as having a child with a genetic birth defect) it is up to the parents to continue with the birth or to abort. There have been political issues raised about this every issue.